Sélection de recherches récentes

 

    
A Positive Psychology Intervention among Long-Term Unemployed People and Its Effects on Psychological Distress and Well-Being

The present study aims to examine the effect of a positive psychology intervention (PPI) on a population of long-term unemployed people. All were members of an association of employment assistance. An opportunity was offered to participate in a PPI. Twelve participants accepted (treatment condition). The remaining participants constituted the control group. Participants of the treatment condition were asked to complete 5 positive psychology exercises during 2 weeks. Participants of the control condition participated as usual in sessions to help their job search. Results indicate that PPI significantly decreases psychological distress (e.g., depression, anxiety) and significantly increases well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, self-esteem).
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Measuring Happiness: From Fluctuating Happiness to Authentic-Durable Happiness
 

On the basis of the theoretical distinction between self-centeredness and selflessness (Dambrun & Ricard, 2011), the main goal of this research was to develop two new scales assessing distinct dimensions of happiness. By trying to maximize pleasures and to avoid displeasures, we propose that a self-centered functioning induces a fluctuating happiness in which phases of pleasure and displeasure alternate repeatedly (i.e. Fluctuating Happiness). In contrast, a selfless psychological functioning postulates the existence of a state of durable plenitude that is less dependent upon circumstances but rather is related to a person’s inner resources and abilities to deal with whatever comes his way in life (i.e. Authentic-Durable Happiness). Using various samples (n = 735), we developed a 10-item Scale measuring Subjective Fluctuating Happiness (SFHS) and a 13-item scale assessing Subjective Authentic-Durable Happiness (SA-DHS). Results indicated high internal consistencies, satisfactory test-retest validities, and adequate convergent and discriminant validities with various constructs including a biological marker of stress (salivary cortisol). Consistent with our theoretical framework, while self-enhancement values were related only to fluctuating happiness, self-transcendence values were related only to authentic-durable happiness. Support for the distinction between contentment and inner peace, two related markers of authentic happiness, also was found. Frontiers in Psychology. 2012. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00016

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La transcendance de soi et le bonheur: une mise à l'épreuve du modèle du bonheur basé sur le soi centré-décentré (Self-transcendence and Happiness: A test of the Self-centeredness/Selflessness Happiness Model)

Le principal objectif de cette recherche était de tester l’une des hypothèses centrales du modèle du bonheur basé sur le soi centré-décentré (Dambrun et Ricard, 2011). D’après ce modèle, le bonheur authentique-durable serait favorisé par un fonctionnement de soi décentré (e.g. ajustement harmonieux, forte connexion soi-autrui). Deux types d’affects seraient responsables de cet effet : la décentration de soi augmenterait les affects de bienveillance (empathie, compassion) et diminuerait les affects afflictifs (colère, peur, jalousie, frustration). La conjugaison de ces deux effets entrainerait une augmentation du bonheur durable. Nous avons testé cette hypothèse au moyen d’analyses de trajet sur un échantillon hétérogène de citoyens d’une ville provinciale française de taille moyenne (n = 164). L’inventaire de transcendance de soi pour adulte (ITSA) était utilisé comme un marqueur du niveau de décentration des participants. Les résultats révèlent tout d’abord que la transcendance de soi est reliée positivement et significativement au bonheur authentique-durable (r = .35). Conformément au modèle théorique, il apparaît que cette relation est médiatisée par deux variables distinctes : les affects de bienveillance et les affects afflictifs. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 93, 2012. pp. 89-102.
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Self-centeredness and Selflessness: A Theory of Self-based Psychological Functioning and its Consequences for Happiness 

The theoretical model presented in this paper emerged from several different disciplines. This model proposes that the attainment of happiness is linked to the self, and more particularly to the structure of the self. We support the idea that the perception of a structured self, which takes the form of a permanent, independent and solid entity leads to self-centered psychological functioning, and this seems to be a significant source of both affliction and fluctuating happiness. Contrary to this, a selfless psychological functioning emerges when perception of the self is flexible (i.e. a dynamic network of transitory relations), and this seems to be a source of authentic-durable happiness. In this paper, these two aspects of psychological functioning and their underlying processes will be presented. We will also explore the potential mechanisms that shape them. We will conclude with an examination of possible applications of our theory. Review of General Psychology, 15, 2012. pp. 138-157.
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Reopening the Study of Extreme Social Behaviors: Obedience to Authority within an Immersive Video Environment.

In this study, we used a paradigm similar to the one used by Milgram in his classic obedience study, using an immersive video environment. We manipulated the victim's degree of visibility and his ethnicity. When the victim was hidden, the level of obedience we obtained was similar to Milgram's. Replicating previous findings observed in real environments, participants were more obedient when the victim was hidden than when he was visible, and the more obedient participants negated their own responsibility by projecting responsibility on both the victim and the experimenter. State-anger and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) emerged as two significant predictors of the level of obedience. Illustrating an underlying process of racial-dehumanization, participants reported less anxiety and distress when the victim was a North African than when the victim was of the same racial origin as the participant. These results underscore the usefulness of using immersive environments when studying extreme social behaviors. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 40(5), Aug, 2010. pp. 760-773.

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Prejudice in the Police: On the Processes Underlying the Effects of Selection and Group Socialisation.

The principal aim of this study is to determine why police officers are generally found to be more prejudiced towards disadvantaged groups than are the standard population. Two independent processes were expected to account for this effect: Selection and group socialisation. Using a cross-sectional design (N = 170), firstly, we compared, newly recruited police officers with a control population (selection effect), and secondly, police officers with 1 year of training with the newly recruited ones (group socialisation effect). Results reveal a significant effect of both selection and group socialisation, the two being underlined by distinct processes; right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) in the case of the former and internalisation of a prejudice norm in the case of the latter. Finally, the results show that group identification moderates the change in internalisation of the prejudice norm. European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 40(2), Mar, 2010. pp. 252-269. 

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Why Does Social Dominance Orientation Decrease with University Exposure to the Social Sciences? The Impact of Institutional Socialization and the Mediating Role of “Geneticism” 

Why does university exposure to a hierarchy-attenuating (HA) academic major (e.g., social science) lead to a decrease in anti-egalitarianism and group domination (social dominance orientation, SDO)? The reason for this well-documented phenomenon remains unclear. In the social sciences, the origins of differences in both behavior and personality are attributed more to social and environmental factors than to genetic ones. We hypothesized that the normative and informational influences of this academic major would lead to perceptions that genes have a less important role than nurture in the shaping of human behavior and personality. Our main hypothesis was confirmed. Decreased SDO among psychology students was mediated significantly by a decrease in belief in genetic determinism, the factor we called "geneticism." European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol 39(1), Feb, 2009. pp. 88-100.

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 Gender differences in mental health: The mediating role of personal discrimination.

Why is women's mental health inferior to that of men? This study hypothesized that women's mental health is not as good as men's because women perceive more personal discrimination. It was confirmed that women obtained higher scores than did men on a subjective scale of psychological distress. Additionally, women perceived greater personal and group discrimination than did men. Perceived personal discrimination proved to be the more robust predictor of psychological distress. This was evident when results of a mediation analysis revealed that gender differences in subjective distress were mediated by the measure of perceived personal discrimination, but not by the measure of group discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol 37(5), May, 2007. pp. 1118-1129.

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Understanding the relationship between racial prejudice and support for the death penalty: "The racist punitive bias hypothesis."

Many studies have shown that there are significant racial disparities in the application of death penalties. In this paper, three studies (N = 484, 94% female), conducted in France, test and explore why racial prejudice and support for the death penalty (SDP) are strongly and positively related. First, prejudice against Arabs remains a significant predictor of SDP, even when ethnocentrism/authoritarianism (Study 1) and Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA; Study 2) are statistically controlled. Second, the attribution of criminal traits to Arabs (Study 1) or criminality-based prejudice (Studies 2 and 3) significantly mediates the relationship between racial prejudice and SDP. Finally, a path analysis illustrates that two relatively independent processes could explain the relationship between prejudice towards Arabs and SDP: criminality-based prejudice leading to specific SDP for Arabs and Social Dominance Orientation (Study 3). Together, these results provide support for the racist punitive bias hypothesis. When racist people think about questions of crime and punishment, they frame the issue in racial terms, leading them to support a punitive law which in their minds will mainly punish minority racial groups. Social Justice Research, Vol 20(2), Jun, 2007. pp. 228-249.
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The relative deprivation- gratification continuum and the attitudes of South Africans toward immigrants: A test of the V-curve hypothesis.

It has long been established that there is a linear and positive relationship between relative deprivation and prejudice. However, a recent experiment suggests that the converse of relative deprivation, relative gratification, may also be associated with prejudice (S. Guimond & M. Dambrun, 2002). Specifically, the evidence suggests that the usual test for a linear relationship between relative deprivation-gratification and prejudice might conceal the existence of a bilinear relationship. This function, labeled the V-curve hypothesis, predicts that both relative deprivation and relative gratification are associated with higher levels of prejudice. This hypothesis was tested with a representative sample of South Africans (N=1,600). Results provide strong support for the V-curve hypothesis. Furthermore, strength of ethnic identification emerged as a partial mediator for the effect of relative gratification on prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 91(6), Dec, 2006. pp. 1032-1044.

 

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Toutes les publications dans des revues scientifiques:

Droit-Volet, S., Fanget, M., & Dambrun, M. (2015). Mindfulness meditation and relaxation training increases time sensitivity. Consciousness and Cognition, 31, 86-97.
Dambrun, M. , Lepage, J. & Fayolle, S. (2014). Victims’ Dehumanization and the Alteration of Other-Oriented Empathy within the Immersive Video Milgram Obedience Experiment. Psychology, 5, 1941-1953. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.517197.

Dambrun, M., & Dubuy, A.-L. (2014). A Positive Psychology Intervention among Long-Term Unemployed People and Its Effects on Psychological Distress and Well-Being. Journal of Employement Counseling, 51, 75-88.

Maisonneuve, C., Testé, B., Taillandier, A., & Dambrun, M. (2014). Host populations' perceptions toward migrants: The effect of private/public settings and the moderating role of threat. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, 45-56.

Dambrun, M., & Taylor, D.M. (2013). The Counter-Intuitive Association between Life Satisfaction and Racism. Sage Open, 1-3. DOI: 10.1177/2158244013505756 Link/Lien.

Dambrun, M., Ricard, M., Desprès & al. (2012). Measuring Happiness: From Fluctuating Happiness to Authentic-Durable Happiness. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00016
Link/Lien.

Dambrun, M. (2012). La psychologie positive: une approche nécessaire et complémentaire? Introduction au numéro thématique. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 93, 17-20.

Dambrun, M., & Ricard, M. (2012). La transcendance de soi et le bonheur: une mise à l'épreuve du modèle du bonheur basé sur le soi centré-décentré. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 93, 89-102.

Gatto, J., & Dambrun, M. (2012). Authoritarianism, Social Dominance and Prejudice among Junior Police Officiers: The Role of the Normative Context. Social Psychology, 43, 61-66.

De Oliveira, P., Guimond, S., & Dambrun, M. (2012). Power and legitimizing ideologies in hierarchy-enhancing vs. hierarchy attenuating environments. Political Psychology, 33, 867-886.

Taillandie-Schmitt, A., Maisonneuve, A., Dambrun, M., Loose, F., Gras, E., Tourret, I., &  Uhlen, D. (2012). Préférences acculturatives des travailleurs sociaux dans le cadre de l'insertion professionnelle: Effets des attitudes personnelles et de la norme professionnelle descriptive sur leurs pratiques. Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations, 18, 308-327.

Tiboulet, M., Dambrun, M., Tourret, I., & Uhlen, D. (2012). La discrimination ethnique à l'emploi: le rôle des préjugés, du contact intergroupe et des orientations d'acculturation. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 62, 37-45.

Dambrun, M., & Ricard, M. (2011). Self-centeredness and Selflessness: A Theory of Self-Based Psychological Functioning and Its Consequences for Happiness. Review of General Psychology, 15, 138-157.


Dambrun, M., & Vatiné, E. (2010). Reopening the Study of Extreme Social Behaviors: Obedience to Authority within an Immersive Video Environment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 760-773.


Gatto, J., & Dambrun, M. (2010). Autoritarisme et préjugés dans la police : L’effet d’une position d’infériorité numérique et le rôle du contexte normatif. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 23, 123-158.

Gatto, J., Dambrun, M., Kerbrat, C., & De Oliveira, P. (2010). Prejudice in the Police: On the Processes Underlying the Effects of Selection and Group Socialisation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 252-269.

Dambrun, M., & Darnon, C. (2009). Individualisme et collectivisme dans les pratiques éducatives: Le ying et le yang? Diversité, 157, 60-68.

Dambrun, M., Kamiejski, R., Haddadi, N., & Duarte, S. (2009). Why Does Social Dominance Orientation Decrease with University Exposure to the Social Sciences? The Impact of Institutional Socialization and the Mediating Role of “Geneticism” European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 88-100.

Dambrun, M., Villate, M., & Richetin, J. (2008). Implicit Racial Attitudes and their Relationships with Explicit Personal and Cultural Beliefs: What Personalized and Traditional IATs Measure? Current Research in Social Psychology, 13, 185-198.

De Oliveira, P., Dambrun, M., & Guimond, S. (2008). L’effet de la dominance sociale sur les idéologies de légitimation : le rôle modérateur de l’environnement normatif. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 21, 115-150.

Dambrun, M. (2007). Understanding the relationship between racial prejudice and support for the death penalty: "The racist punitive bias hypothesis." Social Justice Research, 20, 228-249.

Dambrun, M. (2007). Gender differences in mental health: The mediating role of personal discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1118-1129.

De Oliveira, P., & Dambrun, M. (2007). Maintaining the Status Quo and Social Inequalities: Is Stereotype Endorsement Related to Support for System Justification? Current Research in Social Psychology, 13, 101-121. http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html

Dambrun, M., Taylor, D.M., McDonald, D.A., Crush, J., & Méot, A. (2006). The relative deprivation- gratification continuum and the attitudes of South Africans toward immigrants: A test of the V-curve hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 1032-1044.

Dambrun, M. (2005). Présentation du numéro spécial "Préjugés, stéréotypes et relations intergroupes". Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 67-68, 5-6

Dambrun, M., Gatto, J., & Roche, C. (2005). L'effet du statut du groupe d'appartenance sur les attitudes ethniques implicites et explicites chez les enfants. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 67-68, 65-76.

Dambrun, M. & Taylor, D. M. (2005). "Race", Sex and Social Class Differences in Cognitive Ability: Towards a Contextual rather than Genetic Explanation. Current Research in Social Psychology, 10, 188-202. http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html

Michinov, N., Dambrun, M., Guimond, S., & Méot, A. (2005). Social dominance Orientation, prejudice and discrimination: An innovative method for studying discriminatory behaviors. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 91-98.

Dambrun, M., & Guimond, S. (2004). Implicit and Explicit Measures of Prejudice and Stereotyping: Do They Assess the Same Underlying Knowledge Structure? European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 663-676.

Duarte, S., Dambrun, M., & Guimond, S. (2004). La dominance sociale et les “mythes légitimateurs”: validation d’une version française de l’échelle d’orientation à la dominance sociale. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 17, 97-126.

Dambrun, M. (2004). Belief in Paranormal Determinism as Source of Prejudice toward Disadvantaged Groups: “The Dark Side of Stars” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 32, 627-636.

Dambrun, M., Duarte, S., & Guimond, S. (2004). Why Are Men More Likely to Support Group-Based Dominance than Women? The mediating role of Gender Identification. British Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 1-11.

Dambrun, M., & Guimond, S. (2003). Les mesures implicites et explicites de préjugés et leur relation: Développements récents et perspectives théoriques. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 57, 52-73.

Guimond, S., Dambrun, M., Michinov, N., & Duarte, S. (2003). Does social dominance generate prejudice? Integrating individual and contextual determinants of intergroup cognitions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 697-721.

Dambrun, M., Guimond, S., & Michinov N. (2003). Les composantes automatique et contrôlée des préjugés ethniques. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale/International Review of Social Psychology, 16, 71-96.

Dambrun, M., Desprès, G., & Guimond, S. (2003). On the multifaceted Nature of Prejudice: Psychophysiological Responses to Ingroup and Outgroup Ethnic Stimuli. Current Research in Social Psychology, 8, 187-206. http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html

Dambrun, M., Maisonneuve, C., Duarte, S., & Guimond, S. (2002). Modélisation de quelques déterminants psychosociaux de l'attitude envers l'extrême droite. Les Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 55, 49-63.

Guimond, S., & Dambrun, M. (2002). When Prosperity Breeds Hostility: The Effects of Relative Deprivation and Gratification on Prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 900-912.

Dambrun, M., Guimond, S., & Duarte, S. (2002). The Impact of Hierarchy Enhancing vs. Attenuating Academic Major on Stereotyping: The Mediating Role of Perceived Social Norm. Current Research in Social Psychology, 7, 114-136. http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.htm

Dambrun, M., Guimond, S. (2001). La théorie de la privation relative et l’hositilité envers les Nord-Africains. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 14, 57-89.

 
 
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